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TRACTORS OF THE FUTURE

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The tractor has been an assistant to the people for decades, carrying out a hard work. Nowadays as advanced technologies are being developed a worker driving a tractor is becoming an operator supervising the process of its work. But tractor power units need a lot of fuel.They emit a large amount of exhaust gases polluting the environment. There are some solutions to the problem.

To understand where to go it is necessary to remember some historic facts about tractors and their developments. Last century every tractor produced almost ideally corresponded to its application. It is a machine, which should have enough capacity and be able to move with different speeds depending on the work it performs. A great variety of operations each vehicle can do are achieved by using transmissions with one or two gearbox/es, additional options that increases the weight of the tractor adding to fuel consumption and, as a result, to emitted pollutions and capacity losses.

As is known, the majority of tractor engines are still diesel ones. To meet strict regulations on cutting emissions tractor makers started developing power units employing alternative power sources. Suppliers could be divided into two groups. The first group chose hydrogen-powered fuel cell technology and the choice of the second one was diesel-electric powered engines.

The most widely publicized is New Holland Company, taking an early lead in the clean fuel race revealing its NH2 fuel-cell tractor at the French SIMA show. But it should be mentioned that Allis Chalmers built its fuel cell tractor in 1952 (long before them).

Not all engine manufacturers believe in fuel cell technology for tractors. The Research and development director of Agco Sisu Power claimed it offered no business opportunities, having too many drawbacks such as the need to fill the hydrogen tank almost every hour consuming more electrical energy than hydrogen could create. In this case further developing of cleaner, quieter and more efficient diesel engine technology is considered to be the immediate focus of the company.

Farm equipment manufacturers continue to look at electricity as a way to power tractors and other farm vehicles. These diesel-electric hybrids still use the traditional diesel engine to generate power.

But electric motors work in place of a standard transmission to transfer power to the ground.

Four state-of-the-art electrified platforms are being used today. These include the John Deere 7030 Series E-Premium tractors, the AGCO RoGator E sprayer, the Belarus Tractor International 3023 tractor, and the Rauch EDR fertilizer spreader. Preliminary testing of the vehicles has shown a fuel savings as high as 25% over traditional diesel-powered vehicles. [2] Currently generating just 5kW of electricity at the rear, John Deere engineers think it may be possible to generate more power for implements to be moved in the future. In the meantime the first of the present tractors are expected to arrive on farm in the UK later this year.

Summing up the information on present day technologies it should be stressed manufacturers try to replace massive transmission elements with electro generators and electric motors and supply power take-off shafts with sufficient efficiency.

I suppose there are two ways to achieve the aim (see Fig.1). The first one is to put a reducer after the electric motor for dividing capacity into streams (on PTO and on final drive). This way returns massive gearboxes, conic drive. The second way seems to be more promising; it includes supplying the tractor with one electro generator and two or more electric motors ensuring functioning of every part of the tractor.

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Having analyzed different manufacturers concept concept models of future tractors some of them should be introduced.

Lamborghini being famous for its super cars has been producing super tractors. Concept Toro (Fig 2) is one of them.

New Hollands NH concept tractor powered by hydrogen features the engine which is a bank of fuel cells producing hydrogen. (Fig 3) Deuterium Multi-Dimensional Tractor. (Fig 4) featuring an onboard CPU, GPRS and sensor controlling motion path allocation. It is a futuristic high-tech farm vehicle for tomorrows autonomous farmer.

   

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